Introduction: Hair loss is a cause of emotional and mental distress, especially in the modern age of social media. Hair loss can be classified as Cicatricial and Non-Cicatricial, based on the permanence of the damage wrought to the hair follicles. The conditions selected for evaluation in this particular study are androgenetic alopecia and telogen effluvium, owing to their higher rate of incidence and their amenable response to timely intervention.
Trichoscopy aids in diagnosis, determination of biopsy site and acts as a prognostic tool. In this study, we will enumerate trichoscopic features of the scalp in androgenic alopecia (AGA) and telogen effluvium (TE) on the basis of follicular patterns, interfollicular patterns and hair signs
Material and Methods: It is a cross-sectional and observational study is suited for estimating the prevalence of each trichoscopic feature in AGA and TE. The study was conducted in the Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy, Subbaiah Institute of Medical Sciences, Shimoga, Karnataka. The study was conducted between January 2020 to December 2020 with sample size of 100 patients.
Results: In the 100 cases of AGA and TE, 69% had AGA and 31% TE. Hair pull test was positive in 90% patients of TE. Yellow dots (69%), empty hair follicles, (65%) peripilar sign (71%), vellus hair (95%) and variation in hair shaft diameter in frontotemporal areas (98%) are the characteristic findings in AGA patients. The follicular features present in TE are peripilar sign (10%), yellow dots (29%) and vellus hair (30%). The characteristic finding is that the variation in hair – shaft diameter is prevalent in fronto-temporal (15%) and occipital areas (65%).
Conclusion: The characteristic follicular features on Trichoscopy observed in AGA were peripilar sign, yellow dots and empty hair follicles. The characteristic hair shaft pattern observed was vellus hair. Variation in hair shaft diameter was more prevalent in fronto-temporal areas. TE is said to be a disease of exclusion on Trichoscopy. It is important to differentiate this condition from AGA, where-in the variation in hair shaft thickness is present in fronto-temporal areas and absent in occipital area.