Skin patches with reduced pigmentation are the hallmark of the acquired idiopathic illness vitiligo. Vitiligo was present in 0.5% to 2% of the world's population, with an increase reaching 1.22% in Egypt. The loss of melanocytes, which produce the melanin pigment in the skin, hair, mucous membranes, and retina, leads to skin depigmentation in this illness.
Numerous hypotheses contend that genetics, environmental factors, and autoimmune play a part in the development of vitiligo. Other autoimmune diseases including thyroiditis, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and diabetes mellitus are also linked to vitiligo. Vitiligo's aetiology may be influenced by the imbalance of the innate and adaptive immune systems.