Context: The oral lesions may be the earliest manifestation of the dermatological diseases or the most significant clinical appearance of some dermatological diseases and occasionally lesions occur simultaneously in the skin as well as mucous membrane.
Aims: To study the clinical patterns and frequency of oral lesions.
Settings and Design: A descriptive observational study.
Methods and Material: It was a hospital based observational study, that was conducted in the
department of dermatology of a tertiary care hospital over a period of 24 months. A total number of 100 individuals with oral lesions were included in the study. A detailed history was taken and complete clinical examination was done. Histological and other investigations were done only if essential to establish the diagnosis.
Results: In this study, we studied oral lesions in 100 patients, showing female preponderance 53%cases. Most of the patients belonged to 3rd and 4th decade of life 20% and 26% respectively. Among 37 cases of recurrent oral ulcers seen in the study comprised 37.83% cases each of pemphigus group and herpetic stomatitis. The remaining 24.32% were of recurrent aphthae. The 30 cases of oral ulcers seen in the study comprised 33.3% cases, aphthous 30%, neoplastic 23.3%, local trauma 13.3%. The 9 cases of drug induced oral ulcers seen in this study comprised 22.2% each of drug induced cheilitis, SJS, TEN, perioral dermatitis and 11.1% cases of bullous FDE. The 37 cases of oral lesions seen in the study comprised vesiculobullous disorders in 35.13%, reaction pattern in 24.3%, lichen planus in 24.3%, 5.4% each of TEN, SJS, EM and 2.7% of bullous FDE. The 19 cases of infectious etiology leading to oral ulcers comprised of viral infection in 78.9% and fungal infection in 21.1%. The 12 cases of neoplasms comprised of benign in 41.6% cases, premalignant in 33.3% cases, and malignant in 25% of cases. In this study, genodermatosis cases were six in our study cases, four of which were of ectodermal dysplasia, one case of Papillon Lefevre syndrome, one case of neurofibromatosis-1. In this study, most common 58% involved sites were the periodontium, gingivae and buccal mucosa combined. Involvement of the lips 22.2% was the next significant site. Tongue, teeth, salivary glands, palate were 8%, 5%, 4%, 3% respectively.
Conclusions: This study brings into focus prevalence of various oral manifestations. Thorough knowledge about oral manifestations is essential to arrive at a specific diagnosis which is a mandate for counselling and management.