The main clinical manifestation of scabies caused by the mite, Sarcoptes scabei
, is a pruritic skin eruption. Since 2017, WHO has recognised it as a Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD). In order to bring forward strategies relevant to the framework of NTDs in Senegal, we conducted a study. Our aims were to determine the prevalence of scabies and its risk factors among students attending Koranic schools in Dakar
Method: We were provided with a list of Koranic schools by the heads of health districts and the academic inspectorate. The Koranic schools participating in the study were randomly selected. A cross sectional study was performed, in the departments of Pikine and Dakar, located in the capital, Dakar. Diagnosis was based of clinical criteria with or without confirmation by parasitological examination. Statistical analysis was performed using Stata software version 12. The significance level was 5%.
Result: During the study period from January 9 to October 16, 2018, a total of fifteen koranic schools were included. Out of the 959 residents, 70 were diagnosed with scabies giving a prevalence of 7.29%. The prevalence according to school varies from 1.63-30.84% The main risk factors were the following: male gender, age group less than 10 years (p<0.05), number of residents (p=0,0001), number of showers per week (p=0.048), the possession of field and land (p<0.0001), the urban origin in Dakar (p=0.03).
Multivariate analysis showed than the number of residents in the koranic school, less than 2 showers per week, the possession of livestock were risk factors for scabies, while the presence of a housekeeper, and phone contact with parents are protective factors for scabies. In the logistic regression model, only the number of showers per week above two (OR=0.41, 95% CI 0.22- 0.77) and age group more than ten years (OR=0.52, 95% CI 0.30-0 .91) was the protective factors for scabies among schoolchildren in Koranic schools.
Conclusion: Highly scabies prevalence rates were observed in Koranic schools. The main protective factors were the number of showers per week (greater than two) and age group of more than ten years were the only protective factors for scabies among schoolchildren. The study emphasizes the importance of maintaining high standards of hygiene especially in children under 10 years of age.