AbstractAim & Objective:
The objective of this study to assess the epidemiology of alopecia areata, including its incidence, prevalence, and distribution by sex and age.
Methodology: A cross sectional study was carried out at the Department of Dermatology 2017 January-2019 December. During the study period all patients presenting to the dermatology outpatient with a possible diagnosis of alopecia areata were evaluated.
Results: Out of 50 children, 33 (66%) were males, 17 (34%) were females. five (10%) were in 0-5years age group, 31 (62%) were in 6-10 years age group, 14 (28 %) were in 11-15 years age group. Mean age of onset was 8.63 years. In present analysis duration of the illness, out of 50 patients, 24 (48%) had duration less than 3 months, 17 (35%) had duration 4-6 months, five (10%) patients had duration 7 months - 1 year and four (8%) patients had AA of more than one year duration. In the present investigation, out of 50 children, 15(30%) had a positive family history of alopecia areata. Out of 15 patients with family history of AA, twelve were males (24%) and three (6%) were females. Out of 33 males with AA, 15 (45.45%) had a family history of AA. Out of 17 females with AA, only three (17.64%) had a positive family history of AA. scalp was the initial site of involvement in 48 (96%) children whereas the face was the initial site involved in two (4%) child. Out of 48 patients with scalp as initial site of onset, Occipital region was the most common presenting initial site for 22 (45.83%) cases followed by vertex in 13 (27.08%) cases, temporal and parietal in five (10.41%) cases each. In the present study, out of 50 children, 23 (46%) had only single lesion, while 27 (54 %) had multiple lesions. Out of 50 children, patchy AA was found in 28(58 %) children, combined patchy and ophiasis was found in 9 (17 %), ophiasis was found in 7 (16%), combined patchy and diffuse AA was found in 1(2.08%) child, and alopecia universalis, subtotal AA, reticular AA were found in 1(2.08%) child each. Severity of AA in 48 patients with scalp involvement was assessed using the SALT (SEVERITY OF ALOPECIA TOOL) scoring system. 72.91% (35) of the children were having mild AA, 22.91% (11) were having moderate AA and only 4.16% (2) had severe AA. Out of 35 children with mild AA, 20 (57.14%) were males and 15 (42.86%) were females. Out of 11 children with moderate AA, 8 (72.72%) were males and 3 (27.27%) were females. two children with severe alopecia was male.
Conclusion: AA is the most prevalent autoimmune disorder and the second most prevalent hair loss disorder after androgeneticalopecia, and the lifetime risk in the global population is approximately 2%. AA is associated with psychiatric and medical co-morbidities including depression, anxiety, and several autoimmune disorders, and an increased global burden of disease.